Tutorials for Linking such as Linking URLs, How to Write Relative & absolute URLs, Redirecting URLs to Another Web Page, Linking Images and More
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home > Web Design Tutorials > Programming Tutorials > XHTML Coding Tutorials > XHTML LINKS TUTORIALS

CREATING URLs & HYPERLINKS in XHTML: Links to Articles & Tutorials for XHTML Linking such as how to write url links, absolute addresses, relative addresses, embedding non XHTML content, image linking, and more.

We're going to do the same thing today with Links. We're going to talk about how to build links and how they work in XHTML. As was discussed last time, XHTML is HTML 4 with an XML flavor, so as a topic is covered we'll be discussing any differences between HTML and XHTML.

Writing the URL
The URL is called the uniform resource locator for a reason. It is a standard by which anything that can be addressed through the World Wide Web is assigned an address. All URLs take the form of…

Types of URLs
There are many types of URLs. At last count there were nearly a hundred different types of URLs. There is supposed to be a way to specify a unique type of URL for every type of content available on the Internet. Fortunately, you will normally ever only need to worry about a few of them. Here is a brief overview of the common ones...

Relative and Absolute Addresses
Absolute URLs are the complete URL from the protocol (normally http:) to the finest level of detail required to uniquely identify a single document on the network. Relative URLs only contain the information that is required to determine the new location, or what is different from the current location.

Using Hyperlinks
Hyperlinks can be located most anywhere in a document and can link that document to other documents most anywhere on the Web. The a tag that marks a hyperlink is often called an anchor. I will stick with the method of differentiating between anchors and hyperlinks.

Embedding Non-XHTML Content
The hyperlink tag is not the only way to link content in a Web page. There are other tags that are specific in function and specific in the nature of the content they can link to. The primary ones are..

Linking to other pages
Linking to other pages is what turns a collection of webpages into a website. Without links a website is totally useless, and the Internet would not be what it is today…

Links within a document
Sometimes when you visit a website there is a link at the bottom of the page that reads "back to top", or when you enter the page it jumps half way down to a particular point on the page. This is done using markers within the linked page.


Hyperlinks, usually abbreviated links, are a fundamental part of the Internet. A link takes you from one document to another just by clicking on it. By default, in most web browsers links appear blue and underlined. When you put your mouse over a link, in most web browsers, the mouse changes into the shape of a hand with an outstreched index finger.

To make an image into a link, then justplace the image tag inside the anchor tag, as follows…

Links are an essential part of a website, because with a simple mouse click they let you transfer to another page anywhere on the web.

Text Links
The feature that best characterizes the World Wide Web is the ability to link directly from one page to any other page anywhere on the Web. Normally, this hyperlinking is triggered by a mouse click on a letter, word, phrase, or graphic on the linking page, with the linked page retrieved and loaded immediately into the browser. Web links can be made to local pages in the same directory as the linking page or to a page at any other site on the Web. This is a very powerful, yet easy to use, feature that permits you to navigate to pages located around the world with the simple click of the mouse.

Redirecting Pages
You probably have visited Web sites at which you are automatically redirected from one page to another. This technique is often used when a home page is moved from one URL to another. For a certain period of time the original URL redirects to the new URL until users have a chance to change their bookmarks or link references.

While text may be the meat and bones of an HTML or XHTML document, the heart is hypertext. Hypertext gives users the ability to retrieve and display a different document in their own or someone else's collection simply by a click of the keyboard or mouse on an associated word or phrase (hyperlink ) in the document. Use these interactive hyperlinks to help readers easily navigate and find information in your own or others' collections of otherwise separate documents in a variety of formats, including multimedia, HTML, XHTML, other XML, and plain ASCII text. Hyperlinks literally bring the wealth of knowledge on the whole Internet to the tip of the mouse pointer.

Creating Hyperlinks
Use the HTML/XHTML a tag to create links to other documents and to name anchors for fragment indentifiers within documents.

Creating Effective Links
A document becomes hypertext by tossing in a few links in the same way that water becomes soup when you throw in a few vegetables. Technically, you've met the goal, but the outcome may not be very palatable.

A hyperlink is something you can click that takes you from one location to another. This can be a different site, different page, or different area on the same page. The address that your browser is viewing changes to the address the hyperlink tells it to. This will have the same effect as typing in the URL in the hyperlink. If the file the hyperlink points to isn't a page, the browser will attempt to view it if it has support for that type of file. Otherwise, you'll receive a "save as" box.

Uploading and Linking to Images
Just like Web pages, to be seen on the Web, images need to be moved from your hard drive to the Web server. This is called uploading. Depending upon your Web server, you will either use an FTP client or a Web page uploading form.

Linking Everything
One of the more interesting aspects of XHTML 2.0 is the idea that nearly anything can be a link. The concept of this is that rather than having the following code…


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